Ferns and MossesNon-flowering plants.Plants that produce roots which will attach to rocks and wood
Source:Animal-WorldFerns and Mosses - Types Crystalwort
Riccia - Floating Liverwort [You must be registered and logged in to see this image.]
Crystalwort, also called Floating Liverwort or simply Riccia, is a beautiful plant that makes any aquarium more impressive!
Since it is used by advanced aquarists, novices are often scared off, but wrongly so. This plant is quite undemanding and comes with so many benefits. Crystalwort or Riccia keeps down algae because its growing habits respond to the amount of available nutrients.
Using Crystalwort is also a great way to boost oxygen levels in the tank. If given enough Co2 and light, this plant will produce many small visible oxygen bubbles that will be caught in the intricate "leaves" until they are absorbed into the water. This is often called pearling and is quite beautiful. This plant is also great for breeding tanks both to catch eggs and to protect fry.
Crystalwort tends to be a naturally floating plant which can provide good cover for small fish and fry. However unlike other ferns and mosses, it does not tend to be self attaching. Everyone can find an anchoring method that works for them, but the most popular are use of either a plastic hairnet or fishing line. You may need to prune or retie the Crystalwort on occasion to be sure that light passes all the way through.
The most ambitious aquarists will attempt to anchor this floating plant down to form a carpet, a style piloted by Takashi Amano. In his book, Nature Aquarium World: Book 1, you can see many examples of Takashi's incredible use of Crystalwort to help create beautiful aquatic environments. He includes a description with photographs of his process as well as parameters for water quality, lighting, substrate, and more for each of his tanks.
One problem with Riccia is its tendency to pick up debris. But larger objects can quickly be removed with tweezers. Smaller particles can be removed by rinsing it in a fishnet. Java Fern
Microsorium pteroptus [You must be registered and logged in to see this image.]
The Java Fern is a good plant to use in aquariums containing herbivorous fish since they will seldom eat it!
The Java Fern is an amphibious fern which lives with its rhizome attached to rocks or logs at the edge of mountain streams. In the aquarium the Java Fern should be tied with strings to a rock or log until they attach. They grow at a relatively slow to medium pace, therefore making this an easy plant to keep, and can reach a maxium height of 10 inches. Malayan Aqua Fern
Selanginella wildenowii [You must be registered and logged in to see this image.]
The Malayan Aqua Fern is a beautiful fern that will grow very easily in most aquariums!
The Malayan Aqua Fern can be a beautiful and fulfilling addition to an aquarium if it is given proper care. It grows to a maximum height of 10 inches at a medium to rapid rate. This attractive fern goes best as a foreground or midground plant and can be used as a focal point in the aquarium design.
The Malayan Aqua Fern is an amphibious fern which lives with its rhizome attached to rocks or logs at the edge of mountain streams. In the aquarium it should not be planted too deeply in the substrate, make sure that the top of the roots are visible above the gravel. The bottom substrate should be nutrient-rich. Propagation of the Malayan Aqua Fern is done by the plant sending out shoots at the leaves and roots that become small plants.
The water conditions should be regularly checked to help the Malayan Aqua Fern thrive. It needs a pH between 5.5 and 7.0, with more acidic water being better. Only providing minimal light will help keep it growing and looking healthy. Make sure to perform regular water changes and fertilize regularly after each change. Water Sprite or Oriental Water Fern
Ceratopteris thalictroides [You must be registered and logged in to see this image.]
The Water Sprite is a beautiful fern that will grow great in well-fertilized aquariums and produce beautiful green leaves!
The Water Sprite can be a beautiful and fulfilling addition to an aquarium if it is given proper care. It grows to a maximum height of 20 inches (50 cm) at a rapid rate. Water Sprite goes best as a mid ground or background plant.
The bottom substrate for this aquarium plant should be nutrient-rich. It should not be planted too deeply in the substrate and make sure that the top of the roots are visible above the gravel. Propagation of the Water Sprite is done by adventitious plantlets that grow off the leaf margins.
The water conditions should be regularly checked to help the Water Sprite thrive. It needs a pH between 5 and 7.5, with more acidic water being better. Moderate to bright lights will also help keep it growing and looking healthy. Make sure to perform regular water changes and fertilize regularly after each change.