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 Uromastyx

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Yhanzdcreptiles
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PostSubject: Uromastyx   Wed Oct 19, 2011 4:41 pm

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The Uromastyx is a genus of lizard whose members are better-known as Spiny-tailed lizards, uromastyxs, mastigures, or dabb lizards. Uromastyx are primarily herbivorous, but occasionally eat insects, especially when young. They spend most of their waking hours basking in the sun, hiding in underground chambers at daytime or when danger appears. They tend to establish themselves in hilly, rocky areas with good shelter and accessible vegetation.

Taxonomy

The generic name (Uromastyx) is derived from the Ancient Greek words ourá (οὐρά) meaning "tail" and mastigo (Μαστίχα) meaning "whip" or "scourge", after the thick-spiked tail characteristic of all Uromastyx species. they are nija

Species

  • Uromastyx acanthinura (Bell, 1825) – Bell's Dabb Lizard

  • Uromastyx aegyptia (Forskal, 1775) – Egyptian Mastigure, Leptien's Mastigure

  • Uromastyx alfredschmidti Wilms & Böhme, 2001 – Schmidt's Mastigurev

  • Uromastyx asmussi (Strauch, 1863) – Iranian Mastigure

  • Uromastyx benti (Anderson, 1894) – Bent's Mastigure

  • Uromastyx dispar (Heyden, 1827) – Sudan Mastigure, Mali Uromastyx

  • Uromastyx flavifasciata – Spiny-tailed Lizard

  • Uromastyx geyri (Müller, 1922) – Saharan Spiny-tailed Lizard

  • Uromastyx hardwickii (Gray, 1827) – Hardwick's Spiny-tailed Lizard, Indian Spiny-tailed Lizard

  • Uromastyx loricata (Blanford, 1874) – Mesopotamian Mastigure

  • Uromastyx macfadyeni (Parker, 1932) – Macfadyen's Mastigure

  • Uromastyx occidentalis (Mateo, Geniez, Lopez-Jurado & Bons), 1999 – Giant Spiny-tailed Lizard

  • Uromastyx ocellata (Lichtenstein, 1823) – Eyed Dabb Lizard

  • Uromastyx ornata (Heyden, 1827) – Ornate Mastigure

  • Uromastyx princeps (O’Shaughnessy, 1880) – Princely Mastigure

  • Uromastyx thomasi (Parker, 1930) – Oman Spiny-tailed Lizard

  • Uromastyx yemenensis Wilms & Schmitz, 2007 – Yemen Spiny-tailed Lizard


Description

Their size ranges from 25 cm (10 in) (U. macfadyeni) to 91 cm (36 in) or more (U. aegyptia). Hatchlings or neonates are usually no more than 7–10 cm (3–4 in) in length. Like many reptiles, these lizards' colors change according to the temperature; during cool weather they appear dull and dark but the colors become lighter in warm weather, especially when basking; the darker pigmentation allows their skin to absorb sunlight more effectively.

Their spiked tail is muscular and heavy, and can be swung at an attacker with great velocity, usually accompanied by hissing and an open-mouthed display of (small) teeth. Uromastyxs generally sleep in their burrows with their tails closest to the opening, in order to thwart intruders.

Distribution

Uromastyx inhabit a range stretching through most of North Africa, the Middle East and across south-central Asia and into India. This area spreads across 5000 miles and 30 countries. They occur at elevations from sea level to well over 3000 feet. They are regularly eaten, and sold in produce markets, by local peoples. Uromastyx tend to bask in areas with surface temperatures of over 120 °F.

Reproduction

A female Uromastyx can lay anywhere from 5 to 40 eggs, depending on age and species. Eggs are laid approximately 30 days following copulation with an incubation time of 70–80 days. The neonates weigh 4–6 grams and are about 2 inches (5.1 cm) snout to vent length. They rapidly gain weight during the first few weeks following hatching. A field study in Algeria concluded that Moroccan spiny-tailed lizards add approximately 2 inches (5.1 cm) of total growth each year until around the age of 8–9 years. Wild female uromastyx are smaller and less colorful than males. For example, U. maliensis females are often light tan with black dorsal spots, while males are mostly bright yellow with mottled black markings. Females also tend to have shorter claws. In captivity female U. maliensis tend to mimic males in color. Maliensis are, therefore, reputably difficult to breed in captivity.

Nutrition

These lizards acquire most of the water they need from the vegetation they ingest. Giving a Uromastyx a water bowl can lead to higher humidity in the cage and can cause problems for the animal. Captive uromastyxs’ diets must be vegetarian herbivorous, consisting primarily of endive, dandelion greens, bok choy, and escarole. Some lettuces have almost no nutritive value, but can be given once in a while as a water source. They can consume de-thorned cacti with their powerful jaws, especially if they need water. The lizards' food can be dusted with a calcium and a uromastyx designed supplement to help prevent health problems. However, a special UVB bulb must be used in order for them to absorb the calcium from the gut. It is very important to avoid spinach, chard and flowering kale in the diets of all reptiles, since the oxalates in spinach prevent the uptake of calcium into the bloodstream. Insects should not be fed to an Uromastyx. The high levels of protein can cause liver damage. These animals are herbivores, as stated above, that means they should only be fed plant matter.

Captivity

Historically, captive Uromastyx had a poor survival rate, due to a lack of understanding of their dietary and environmental needs. In recent years, knowledge has significantly increased, and appropriate diet and care has led to survival rates and longevity approaching and perhaps surpassing those in the wild.

The Mali Uromastyx (Uromastyx maliensis) is considered an ideal species to choose as a pet because they readily adapt to a captive environment. Another species of Uromastyx that adapts to captivity well, and comes in a wide variety of colors, is Uromastyx ocellata ornata. Artificial UVB/UVA light and vitamin supplements must be balanced with proper food and nutrition, UVB light is required for calcium absorption from the gut. Most commercially available UVB lights lose efficiency after 6 months and need to be replaced. Proper enclosures can be costly, as these are roaming animals with large space needs for their size, combined with the need to provide heat and ultraviolet light. Though the lizards bask at very high temperatures, there must be a temperature gradient within the enclosure allowing them to cool off away from the heat lamps. A cooling-down period over winter months can trigger the breeding response when temperatures rise in the spring. The temporary slowing-down of their metabolisms also lengthens the animals' lifespans.

Uromastyx are burrowing lizards, and need substrate deep enough to burrow in, or a low structure under which to hide. In the wild, these lizards' burrows can reach 305 cm (10 ft) in length.

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PostSubject: Re: Uromastyx   Thu Oct 20, 2011 12:23 am

Tagal na ang hahanap kakilala ko neto.. hindi parin makakita.. LOL




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